The CJEU in its Tom Kabinet judgment has ruled that the supply of e-books qualifies as “an act of communication to the public” under the InfoSoc Directive instead of “a distribution to the public” as is the case with physical books. It follows that copyright in e-books cannot be exhausted. This means that the resale of e-books requires the authorization … Continue Reading
On January 15, the Court of Justice of the European Union’s (CJEU) Advocate General (AG) Manuel Campos Sánchez-Bordona delivered his Opinion on four references for preliminary rulings on the topic of retention of and access to communications data.
Of the four references, two originated from France, one from Belgium, and one from the Investigatory Powers Tribunal (IPT) in the United … Continue Reading
One could be forgiven for thinking that knowing how to comply with a legal obligation that has been in place for nearly a decade would be clear cut. However, widespread practice tells us that this is far from the truth. In November 2009, as part of wider reforms to the European telecommunications regulatory framework, the European Union introduced various amendments … Continue Reading
On 1 October 2019, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) handed down a crucial decision impacting the way that consent is obtained on the internet. The judgment relates to Case C-673/17 (Planet49 – a previous post outlining the background can be found here).
In the Planet49 case, the German Federal Court referred a number of questions … Continue Reading
German courts have been dealing with the Metall auf Metall [song by the German band Kraftwerk] case for two decades. Recently, the CJEU, too, has had to deal with the case and ruled by judgment of 29 July 2019 (C-476/17) that unless the phonogram producer consents, sampling constitutes an infringement of his rights. However, the CJEU argued, if, by modifying … Continue Reading
Following the one-year anniversary of the coming into effect of the GDPR, Hogan Lovells’ Privacy and Cybersecurity practice has prepared a compilation of key GDPR-related developments of the past 12 months. The compilation covers regulatory guidance, enforcement actions, court proceedings, and various reports and materials.
Regulatory GuidanceContinue Reading
On 26 March 2019 the EU Parliament voted to pass the draft Copyright Directive (“Directive”) into EU law. After adoption by the EU Council (representatives of Member State governments) and official publication, the EP’s adopted text will become EU law. Member States will then have until mid-2021 to implement it into their national laws. DSM Watch has already overviewed the … Continue Reading
Article 83 of the GDPR provides for two levels of administrative fines: a lower level – maximum of €10 million or 2% of the global turnover – for violations relating to record-keeping, data security, data protection impact assessments, data protection by design and default, and data processing agreements; and a higher level – maximum of €20 million or 4% of … Continue Reading
Only two weeks ago, the Federal Court of Justice (BGH) referred various questions to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) concerning the liability of the video platform YouTube. There, the court’s queries focused on who is actually responsible for unlawfully uploaded content – just the uploader himself or the service provider as … Continue Reading
Ever since the European Court of Justice (CJEU) in its highly regarded UsedSoft ruling declared the resale of “used” software admissible (dated 3 July 2012, C-128/11), the discussion has persistently centered around the question whether the idea of the so-called exhaustion, upon which UsedSoft is essentially based, could or should be extended to other digital content – such as … Continue Reading
|The famous case brought by Maximilian Schrems against Facebook Ireland in Austria, aimed to become an international and large data protection class action, led on 25 January 2018 to a ruling from the CJEU on two main points:
On 29 November 2017, the European Court of Justice (CJEU) handed down a decision on a video recording service that stores TV programmes online in a cloud (C-265/16 – VCAST). According to the Court, the cloud recording service has a dual function that enables its users to create reproductions on the one hand but also makes copyright protected … Continue Reading
With decision of 8 May 2017, the regional Court of Berlin referred to questions for preliminary ruling to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The court is concerned whether the rules on the press publishers’ neighbouring right – as implemented into German copyright law in 2013 – were properly enacted back then. Specifically, the judges wish to … Continue Reading
There is no end in sight regarding CJEU decisions on the meaning of “communication to the public“. On 26 April 2017, the European Court of Justice (CJEU) ruled (C-527/15 – Filmspeler) that the sale of a multimedia player with pre-installed add-ons that contained links to illegal streaming websites constitutes a copyright infringement. At the same time, … Continue Reading
The cases that deal with the meaning of “communication to the public” continue: in a current reference for a preliminary ruling, the European Court of Justice (CJEU) will have to decide whether the operators of websites that index content available on peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, such as The Pirate Bay, infringe copyright when there is no actual content … Continue Reading
In yet another key case dealing with the balance between citizens’ privacy and the ability of the state to intrude into it, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has ruled on the compatibility with European Union law of legislation that authorises the retention of communications data, which includes personal data. The reference from the UK Court of … Continue Reading
Is it permitted to reproduce out-of-commerce works and make them publicly accessible under European copyright exceptions? So far, there is no explicit regulation at European level dealing with out-of-commerce works. However, a few member states, including Germany, have already complemented their copyright by way of introduction of new provisions governing the use that one can make of out-of-stock works. In … Continue Reading
Ever since the first draft of the EU-US Privacy Shield framework was published in early 2016, groups opposed to the idea have indicated their intent to challenge the legality of the framework under EU law. Recently, the privacy advocacy group Digital Rights Ireland (DRI) made good on that promise. Following the filing of a formal complaint on 15 September asking … Continue Reading
On 10 November 2016, the European Court of Justice (CJEU) rendered a landmark decision on the lending of e-books. Public libraries may rely on statutory copyright exceptions when lending out e-books and are not required to obtain a contractual license explicitly covering such e-lending right. With its decision, the CJEU applies the same legal principles to e-books that already govern … Continue Reading
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has ruled that dynamic IP addresses are capable of constituting personal data under certain circumstances, ending years of speculation about whether such essential building blocks of the Internet qualified for protection under the EU Data Protection Directive.
In Patrick Breyer v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, the German Federal Court referred two questions … Continue Reading
Guests entering hotel rooms expect to be able to turn on the TV or listen to the radio. Accordingly, TVs and radios feature in almost any hotel room around the world. However, this commodity has been the trigger for numerous legal disputes in recent years. As always, the quarrel is about money.
In this post we look at proceedings which … Continue Reading
So far, September has been a busy month in Luxembourg. On 8 September 2016, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) handed down a ground-breaking judgment on hyperlinking (Case Ref.: C-160/15 – GS Media, see our earlier post). On 15 September 2016, this equally important verdict followed (Case Ref.: C-484/14 – McFadden). The judges had … Continue Reading
On 12 July 2016, the European Commission issued its much awaited “adequacy decision” concerning the Privacy Shield framework for the transfer of personal data from the EU to the U.S. This adequacy decision is based on the latest version of the Privacy Shield, which was further negotiated and revised following the Article 29 Working Party’s April 2016 concerns with … Continue Reading
Will the lending of e-books be governed by the same rules as the lending of “classic” printed books? This is an important question that public libraries and others are eagerly trying to get answered in Europe. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) currently is sitting over a case that deals with exactly this query. At the heart … Continue Reading